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We need not excuse or ignore the racism that has plagued America's past in order to take credit for our Founding ideal, which enacted a world revolution in holding that: All Men are Created equal. It obviously took to long to make this credo universal, yet we have achieved a society in which the color of your skin, your gender, your religious beliefs, etc. are no bar to voting, holding office, travel, owning property, work, or any other privilege. And when Martin Luther King Jr. summoned white America to honor civil rights he explicitly based his case on the Founding. And while Donald Trump has pursued explicitly racist and bigoted policies against immigrants, Muslims and others, the rest of our republican institutions have fought back against him and the American people have consistently rejected him, because his racism is so antithetical to American aspirations. In our most recent explosion of racial tension, the American public has overwhelmingly sided with the argument that black lives matter against the systemic racism of how our police too often function. Without being Pollyannish, one might expect this to be a moment when we recognize the progress that has been made, and commit ourselves to furthering it, even while we acknowledge the work left to do.

Importantly, the shadow that Trumpism casts ought to make us reckon with the specific social phenomenon that he represents: white identity politics. Over against the idea that all men are created in God's image and are, therefore, of equal value, identity politics seeks to substitute particular attributes as of primary importance. Thus, instead of a universal identity as creatures of God, people identify themselves by race, religion, sexual orientation or what have you. This tendency is a cancer on the Republic; it is literally anti-American and anti-Christian. It was annoying, if somewhat tolerable, when it was engaged in by the Left on behalf of cohorts that had been marginalized to one degree or another in our past, but it's adoption by the Right, on behalf of the majority (plurality) white population has revealed the full evil of its nature. It does not in any way excuse Donald and the Trumpbots, but the white backlash against identity politics seems inevitable; only its vehemence caught us offguard.

Robin DiAngelo is a former college professor who coined the term "white fragility" who traded in academia for a lucrative gig in diversity training. This book is her contribution to the debate over the state of race relations and it is an exercise in identitarianism no less destructive than Donald's.

She begins promisingly enough, with a discussion of the fact that race is not a biological reality but a social construct. She, likewise, is on firm ground when she says that the point of the construction was to justify white supremacy. One awaits the necessary indictment of Darwinism, an artefact of Victorian Britain that was adopted to justify Colonialism over native populations who looked different than Englishmen, even to the point of exterminationism:
I could show fight on natural selection having done and doing more for the progress of civilisation than you seem inclined to admit. Remember what risks the nations of Europe ran, not so many centuries ago of being overwhelmed by the Turks, and how ridiculous such an idea now is. The more civilised so-called Caucasian races have beaten the Turkish hollow in the struggle for existence. Looking to the world at no very distant date, what an endless number of the lower races will have been eliminated by the higher civilised races throughout the world.
But one waits in vain. As a Progressive in good standing, Ms DiAngelo eschews any detailed examination of the Enlightened ideological foundations of racism.

Even worse, rather than attacking this vile social construction, she fundamentally embraces it as a reality we ought to work with. In myriad articles, interviews and speeches, she begins by asserting her whiteness. She identifies herself as something she has just told us is fictional. Then, having preserved it for herself, she asserts that all whites are to be so identified and to bear the permanent guilt of white supremacist theory as a result. Nor does she stop there. In her formulation, American society is irredeemable due to the existence of the construct and the very End of History is so tainted by the ideology of race as to delegitimize it whole: Examples of ideology...include individualism, the speriority of capitalism as an economic system and democracy as a political system... The folks in places like Botswana and Taiwan will be disheartened to hear that the premises that undergird their fantastic successes are just racist traps.

Despite all this, were the "white fragility" of the author's title a reference to the Right's terror of the "Great Replacement" we'd still be prepared to listen. Their fear of losing majority status and their terror of having to compete in the workforce with women, blacks, Asians, Latinos, etc. certainly explains much of their hysteria and the retreat into conspiratorial lunacy, like Qanon. But the author means something quite different:
White Fragility is a state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress becomes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviors such as argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation.
There are so many problems with this as to render the concept close to useless. In the first place, it would be easy enough to test this proposition in a scientifically falsifiable manner. Where are the studies that take biometric readings to demonstrate her assertion? Secondly, where is the peer-reviewed study on individuals of all "races" that shows white reactions are unique? If every ethnicity reacts to the application of "racial stress" in similar manner then it can obviously have nothing to do with distinctly "white anxiety," nevermind notions of white supremacy. She marshalls no evidence for any of her assertions other than anecdotal, from her own experience, which is too obviously tainted to be taken seriously.

And here we arrive at the biggest problem with Ms DiAngelo and her chosen profession, for what evidence we do have strongly suggests that not only is the sort of racial confrontation that her training consists of not effective but tends to be detrimental to diversity:
Do people who undergo training usually shed their biases? Researchers have been examining that question since before World War II, in nearly a thousand studies. It turns out that while people are easily taught to respond correctly to a questionnaire about bias, they soon forget the right answers. The positive effects of diversity training rarely last beyond a day or two, and a number of studies suggest that it can activate bias or spark a backlash. [...]

[F]ive years after instituting required training for managers, companies saw no improvement in the proportion of white women, black men, and Hispanics in management, and the share of black women actually decreased by 9%, on average, while the ranks of Asian-American men and women shrank by 4% to 5%. Trainers tell us that people often respond to compulsory courses with anger and resistance—and many participants actually report more animosity toward other groups afterward.
If "white fragility" is a thing, it seems as if Ms DiAngelo's White Fragility makes it worse.

Not only is this disastrous in itself, but it serves to thwart the very things that would ameliorate lack of equal treatment:
Evidence that contact between groups can lessen bias first came to light in an unplanned experiment on the European front during World War II. The U.S. army was still segregated, and only whites served in combat roles. High casualties left General Dwight Eisenhower understaffed, and he asked for black volunteers for combat duty. When Harvard sociologist Samuel Stouffer, on leave at the War Department, surveyed troops on their racial attitudes, he found that whites whose companies had been joined by black platoons showed dramatically lower racial animus and greater willingness to work alongside blacks than those whose companies remained segregated. Stouffer concluded that whites fighting alongside blacks came to see them as soldiers like themselves first and foremost. The key, for Stouffer, was that whites and blacks had to be working toward a common goal as equals—hundreds of years of close contact during and after slavery hadn’t dampened bias.

Business practices that generate this kind of contact across groups yield similar results. Take self-managed teams, which allow people in different roles and functions to work together on projects as equals. Such teams increase contact among diverse types of people, because specialties within firms are still largely divided along racial, ethnic, and gender lines. For example, women are more likely than men to work in sales, whereas white men are more likely to be in tech jobs and management, and black and Hispanic men are more likely to be in production.

As in Stouffer’s combat study, working side-by-side breaks down stereotypes, which leads to more equitable hiring and promotion. At firms that create self-managed work teams, the share of white women, black men and women, and Asian-American women in management rises by 3% to 6% over five years.

The third tactic, encouraging social accountability, plays on our need to look good in the eyes of those around us. It is nicely illustrated by an experiment conducted in Israel. Teachers in training graded identical compositions attributed to Jewish students with Ashkenazic names (European heritage) or with Sephardic names (African or Asian heritage). Sephardic students typically come from poorer families and do worse in school. On average, the teacher trainees gave the Ashkenazic essays Bs and the Sephardic essays Ds. The difference evaporated, however, when trainees were told that they would discuss their grades with peers. The idea that they might have to explain their decisions led them to judge the work by its quality.

In the workplace you’ll see a similar effect. Consider this field study conducted by Emilio Castilla of MIT’s Sloan School of Management: A firm found it consistently gave African-Americans smaller raises than whites, even when they had identical job titles and performance ratings. So Castilla suggested transparency to activate social accountability. The firm posted each unit’s average performance rating and pay raise by race and gender. Once managers realized that employees, peers, and superiors would know which parts of the company favored whites, the gap in raises all but disappeared.
Gosh, you mean the solution to lack of diversity is hiring a more diverse workforce and being open about how your employees are reviewed and rewarded? Where would that leave practitioners of the lucrative business of diversity training?

Finally, I'd offer one anecdote to rebut Ms DiAngelo's anecdotes. She speaks at length about the phenomenon of "white women's tears." She says that when white women are confronted with instances of racism such that they are brought to tears, they are merely using this as a weapon to distract from the actual victims and shift sympathy to themselves in a form of white supremacist jiu-jitsu. As it happens, our company brought in a diversity trainer who made someone cry and it didn't give off much of a whiff of Klanishness. We were asked to go stand in various locations around the room that described our worldviews and one woman in her 60s stood beneath the sign that said "I don't see color, just human beings." The trainer informed her that this was illegitimate because it "cancelled" the life experiences of people of color and was, therefore, a form of crypto-racism. The trainer was effectively demanding that we embrace the social construct that Ms DiAngelo has labeled a mere social construct and that we define ourselves by our "whiteness" and the other by their "blackness." You will hardly be surprised to hear that being called a racist for not succumbing to this racialism and for judging people by the content of their character instead of the color of their skin made the woman in question tearful. Moreover, it did produce exactly the sort of anger that the author calls fragility and it undermined any useful contribution the rest of the session might have made. But it was not anger towards blacks; it was specifically anger towards the trainer. What this book discusses as a fragile reaction of whites against blacks when we are called on our racism is more likely just a completely understandable defensive reaction against the methods of diversity trainers. People are not being triggered by blacks or by recognizing their own racism but by ideologues like Ms DiAngelo.


(Reviewed:)

Grade: (F)


Websites:

See also:

Race
Robin DiAngelo Links:

    -AUTHOR SITE: RobinDiAngelo.com
    -WIKIPEDIA: Robin DiAngelo
    -GOOGLE SCHOLAR: Robin DiAngelo
    -BOOK SITE: White Fragility (Penguin Random House)
    -WIKIPEDIA: White Fragility
    -READING GUIDE: White Fragility (Beacon Press)
    -ESSAY: No, I Won’t Stop Saying “White Supremacy”: White people like me should use the term because it shifts the race problem to us, where it belongs (ROBIN DIANGELO, JUN 30, 2017, Yes!)
    -ESSAY: White Fragility (Robin DiAngelo, 2011, International Journal of Critical Pedagogy)
    -ESSAY: White people assume niceness is the answer to racial inequality. It's not (Robin diAngelo, 1/16/19, The Guardian)
    -ESSAY: White Fragility and the Rules of Engagement: How to engage in the necessary dialogue and self-reflection that can lead to structural change (Robin DiAngelo, UUA.org)
    -ESSAY: Whiteness in racial dialogue: a discourse analysis (Robin DiAngelo, 2004, Research Works)
    -VIDEO LECTURE: Dr. Robin DiAngelo discusses 'White Fragility': University of Washington professor Dr. Robin DiAngelo reads from her book "White Fragility: Why It's So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism," explains the phenomenon, and discusses how white people can develop their capacity to engage more constructively across race. (Robin DiAngelo, Jul 3, 2018, Seattle Channel)
    -VIDEO LECTURE: Deconstructing White Privilege with Dr. Robin DiAngelo (Robin DiAngelo, Feb 21, 2017, General Commission on Religion and Race of The UMC)
    -VIDEO LECTURE: White Fragility Lecture with Dr. Robin DiAngelo (Robin DiAngelo, KTOP-TV 10 presents a keynote presentation with Robin DiAngelo, 6/25/19, City of Oakland)
    -VIDEO INTERVIEW: Robin DiAngelo: White Fragility (Robin DiAngelo: White Fragility (06/12/20, Presented by Family Action Network)
    -VIDEO DISCUSSION: A Discussions About Race at ACE2019 (Beverly Daniel Tatum and Robin DiAngelo, Apr 9, 2019, American Council on Education)
    -VIDEO LECTURE: Robin Diangelo (Western Washington University, Aug 9, 2016)
    -VIDEO: Teaching Tolerance Interviews Robin DiAngelo: White Fragility in the Classroom (Teaching Tolerance, Jun 11, 2019)
    -AUDIO DISCUSSION: Robin DiAngelo and Resmaa Menakem In Conversation (On Being with Krista Tippett, July 9, 2020)
    -PODCAST: Dismantling White Fragility (Goop, January 30, 2020)
    -VIDEO INTERVIEW: White Fragility (Michel Martin, 6/12/20, Amanpour & Co)
    -VIDEO: White Fragility : Robin DiAngelo explored the challenges in discussing race with white Americans. (C-SPAN BOOK TV, JUNE 30, 2018)
    -PROFILE: The Capitalist Genius of the Anti-Racism Industry : Robin DiAngelo is a great American capitalist marketing genius, up there with the inventor of the pet rock or the people who figured out how to brand water. (KYLE SMITH, July 16, 2020, National Review)
    -INTERVIEW: Academic Robin DiAngelo: 'We have to stop thinking about racism as someone who says the N-word': Her book, White Fragility, has been a US bestseller and provoked an uncomfortable conversation on what it means to be white. She explains why she won’t give liberals an easy ride (Nosheen Iqbal, 16 Feb 2019, The Observer)
    -INTERVIEW: What’s My Complicity? Talking White Fragility With Robin DiAngelo: For well-intentioned white people doing anti-racist and social justice work, the first meaningful step is to recognize their fragility around racial issues—and build their emotional stamina. 'White Fragility' author Robin DiAngelo breaks it down. (ADRIENNE VAN DER VALK ANYA MALLEY, SUMMER 2019, Tolerance.org)
    -INTERVIEW: Robin DiAngelo: How 'white fragility' supports racism and how whites can stop it (Sandee LaMotte, June 7, 2020, CNN)
    -INTERVIEW: Why White Liberals Are So Unwilling to Recognize Their Own Racism (ISAAC CHOTINER, AUG 02, 2018, Slate)
    -AUDIO INTERVIEW: 'White Fragility' Author Robin DiAngelo on What White People Can Do to Address Racism (Michael Krasny, Jun 18, 2020, KQED)
    -ESSAY: The Problem with ‘White Fragility’ Theory (Jonathan Church, 8/24/18, Quillette)
    -ESSAY: Microaggression and Macrononsense (Andrew Ferguson, February 24, 2017, Weekly Standard)
    -ESSAY: Calibrating Prejudice in Milliseconds : Social psychologists have devoted great effort to measuring the elusive construct of unconscious prejudice. However, recent work underscores both the psychometric flaws of these measures and the weaknesses in claims that they predict behavior in realistic organizational settings. Before accepting unconscious prejudice as an inevitable source of individual-level disparate treatment and endorsing structural solutions such as quotas, sociologists need to explore the relative efficacy of institutional norms and accountability systems widely used for checking both conscious and unconscious forms of individual-level bias. (Philip Tetlock & Gregory Mitchell, 2008, Social Psychology Quarterly)
    -ESSAY: White fragility: what it is and why it's compounding racism: "Sometimes, it feels as if being accused of racism causes an even bigger problem than the racism itself" (CHIDOZIE OBASI, JUN 10, 2020, Harpers Bazaar)
    -INTERVIEW: Robin DiAngelo on Educators' "White Fragility" (Sarah McKibben, April 2019, Educational Leadership)
    -INTERVIEW: As Starbucks trains on implicit bias, the author of 'White Fragility' gets real (Alia E. Dastagir, USA TODAY)
    -PROFILE: White Fragility is Everywhere (7/15/20, NY Times Magazine)
    -REVIEW ESSAY: Guilt Lit (rafael Walker, Sep. 17th, 2020, The Point)
    -ESSAY: Why is White Fragility so popular?: Robin DiAngelo’s bestselling theories may do little to promote anti-racist activism. (Matthew Legge, 9 August 2020, OpenDemocracy)
    -ESSAY: Robin DiAngelo’s ‘White Fragility’ ignores the differences within whiteness (Raluca Bejan, August 27, 2020, The Conversation)
    -ARTICLE: Anti-racist book dethrones 'Hunger Games' prequel on best-seller list amid mass protests (Barbara VanDenburgh, 6/10/20, USA TODAY)
    -ESSAY: Why diversity training on campus is likely to disappoint (Amna Khalid & Jeffrey Aaron Snyder, August 5, 2020, The Conversation)
    -ESSAY: Why Diversity Programs Fail (Frank Dobbin and Alexandra Kalev, July–August 2016, Harvard Business Review)
    -READING LIST: Confronting Racism at Work: A Reading List (The Editors, June 15, 2020, Harvard Business Review)
    -ESSAY: Is It Racist To Call Someone 'Racist'? (GENE DEMBY, 11/23/16, NPR: Code Switch)
    -ESSAY: The Problem with The Mikado: Why Are People So Worked Up About This Year’s Production of Gilbert and Sullivan’s Comic Opera? (Brendan Kiley, 6/23/14, The Stranger)
    -ESSAY: Study: overhyped media narratives about America’s fading white majority fuel anxiety: More inclusive definitions of ethnicity produce a more hopeful response. (Matthew Yglesias, May 2, 2018, Vox)
    -ESSAY: The roots of European racism lie in the slave trade, colonialism – and Edward Long: Ideas of Africans as inferior, backwards and barbaric can be traced back to those justifying slavery in the 18th century. And the stereotypes still cast a shadow over the continent (David Olusoga, Tue 8 Sep 2015, The Guardian)
    -INTERVIEW: Linguist John McWhorter Says 'White Fragility' Is Condescending Toward Black People (JAMES DOUBEK, July 20, 2020, NPR: Morning Edition)
    -ESSAY: Reading 'White Fragility' and canceling your friends won't make you an anti-racist: Sorry, but performative social media posts about Venmo'ing your black colleagues won't help us either (Justin Lee, 03 July 2020, Independent)
    -ESSAY: What is white fragility? (Milla Alexander, Lush)
    -ESSAY: The Wages of Whiteness (Hari Kunzru, SEPTEMBER 24, 2020, The New Yorker)
    -ESSAY: UConn Will Pay White Fragility Author Robin DiAngelo $20,000 To Train School Administrators: The three-day retreat will help 44 top officials "come to grips with the critical questions of racism and inclusion." (ROBBY SOAVE, 8.14.2020, reason)
    -ESSAY: Everything you need to know about white fragility (Jessica Caporuscio, June 12, 2020, Medical News Today)
    -ESSAY: Comforting Discomfort as Complicity: White Fragility and the Pursuit of Invulnerability (Barbara Applebaum, 08 September 2017, Hypatia)
    -ESSAY: Enough of the psychobabble. Racism is not something to fix with therapy: Unconscious bias training is a lucrative industry, but it won’t change consciously hostile policies (Kenan Malik, The Guardian)
    -ESSAY: ‘White Fragility’ Is An Inherently Racist Idea That Should Be Retired Immediately: This concept of white fragility is designed to secure one-way lectures, not discussions. What use is this during such divided times? (Jesse Lile, JUNE 18, 2019, The Federalist)
    -PODCAST: Useful Idiots: Professor Adolph Reed on Identity Politics: Matt Taibbi and Katie Halper also discuss ‘White Fragility’ book (Matt Taibbi and Katie Halper, Useful Idiots)
    -ESSAY: 103 Things White People Can Do for Racial Justice (Corinne Shutack, Aug 13, 2017, Equality Includes You)
    -ESSAY: ‘White Woman Tears,’ for $2,500 a Night: The ‘Race to Dinner’ project offers race reeducation for pale women willing to pay the price and acknowledge their sins. (JOHN HIRSCHAUER, February 7, 2020, National Review)
    -ESSAY: ‘Anti-Racist’ Education Is Anything But: The “anti-racist” evangelists are mounting a self-serving culture war. (FREDERICK M. HESS, September 1, 2020, National Review)
    -AUDIO SERIES: White Fragility: A Conversation on Race and Racism: Introducing a new series discussing ‘White Fragility’ with perspectives from various Christian leaders. (ED STETZER, Christianity Today)
    -ESSAY: The Theory of White Fragility: Scholarship or Proselytization? (Jonathan Church, 1/25/19, Aero)
    -ESSAY: U.S. Businesses Must Take Meaningful Action Against Racism (Laura Morgan Roberts and Ella F. Washington, June 01, 2020, Harvard Business Review)
    -AUDIO DISCUSSION: A Discussion On 'White Fragility': Cincinnati-based St. Peter's United Church of Christ hosted a virtual panel titled "Race, Rage & Fear" based on DiAngelo's book (Rev. Derek Terry, Miami University Assistant Professor Phil Smith, Ph.D, and Director of Learning & Culture for Leadership for Educational Equity Kate McCracken, join Cincinnati Edition, 7/20/20, Cincinnati Public Radio)
    -ESSAY: Confronting DiAngelo’s “White Fragility” in the Time of #BlackLivesMatter: White people must not worship DiAngelo or her book, and no one should be recommending that white people read only White Fragility or read it instead of Black voices. (Paul Thomas, Jun 30, 2020, Medium)
    -ESSAY: The Ultimate White Fragility: White people in not-insignificant numbers maintain a persistent belief that they’re the ones suffering historic levels of racial discrimination. (Bruce Bartlett, July 21, 2020, New Republic)
    -ESSAY: 'White Fragility' is a corporate cult (Louise O’Shea, 23 July 2020, Red Flag)
    -ESSAY: What Is White Fragility? (Laura Harold, September 17, 2020, Very Well Mind)
    -ESSAY: Dismantling DiAngelo's 'White Fragility' — racial equality or racial exorcism?: ZOLTAN ZIGEDY destroys the arguments of the race-oil salesmen peddling expensive white-centric etiquette and manners training instead of asking us to confront real, material racial inequality: pay, housing, gentrification and injustice (Zoltan Zigedy, Morning Star)
    -VIDEO: The White Savior Trope, Explained (The Take, Jul 1, 2020)
    -READING LIST: Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging Library (Harvard)
    -ESSAY: Is the Anti-Racism Training Industry Just Peddling White Supremacy? (Jonathan Chait, Jul. 16th, 2020, New York)
    -SERIES: America Reckons With Racial Injustice: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE FIGHT FOR CHANGE (NPR)
    -PROFILE: Noel Ignatiev’s Long Fight Against Whiteness (Jay Caspian Kang, 11/15/19, The New Yorker)
    -TED TALK: Why I, as a black man, attend KKK rallies (Daryl Davis, 12/08/17, TEDxNaperville)
    -ESSAY: Racism Is Real. But Is “Systemic Racism”? That Time I Was Published by Newsweek—For Two Hours: The opinion editor of Newsweek should be commended for striving to publish a diversity of views at the site, but its editor-in-chief committed journalistic malpractice by taking down an essay already published in order to reschedule it when it could be “balanced” by a view less challenging to the site’s readers. (MATTHEW J. FRANCK, 9/14/20, Public Discourse)
    -VIDEO ARCHIVES: Robin DiAngelo (YouTube)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility: : Why it’s so Hard for White People to Talk About Race by Robin DiAngelo (John McWhorter, The Atlantic)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Anthony Daniels, New Criterion)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Matt Taibbi, SubStack)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Karty Waldman, The New Yorker)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Carlos Lozado, Washington Post)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (David Roediger, LA Review of Books)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Lauren Michelle Jackson, Slate)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Chelsey Dennis, LSE)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Peter C. Baker, Pacific Standard)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Publishers Weekly)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (George Yancey, Gospel Coalition)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (William R Frey, Journal of Social Work)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Trevor Philips, Times [uk])
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (MELISSA PHRUKSACHART, Boston Review)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Bill Schwab, Missourian)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (John Hudlow, Curious)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Rebecca Green, Socialist Alternative)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Max Rodriguez, QBR)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Wilfred C. Reilly, Commentary)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Ryan Cooper, The Week)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (The Teacherist)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Mary Johnson-Butterworth, UAB Institute for Human Rights Blog)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Mark F. Carr, Spectrum)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Jim O Harries, William Carey International University)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Rebecca C. Hong, Christian Scholar's Review)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (David Edward Burke, Logical Liberal)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Rachel Sauer, Collectivemke)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Dave Zvenyach, esq.io)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Ted Folkman, Letters Blogatory)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Isabella Cisneros, Chicago Maroon)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (David Barber, Counter Punch)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Hive Learning)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (ELISABETH WORONZOFF, Pop Matters)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Valerie Tarico, Quillette)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Jonathan Church, Arc Digital)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Jackie Wilson Asheeke, Observer 24)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Rational Policy)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Clara L. Wilkins, The Common Reader)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Edward J. Blum, Christian Century)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Christine E. McCarthy, America)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Center for Compassionate Leadership)
    -REVIEW: of White Fragility (Rafael Walker, The Point)
    -REVIEW ESSAY: The Orwellian Dystopia of Robin DiAngelo’s PhD Dissertation (Jonathan Church, Aero)
    -REVIEW: of How To Be An Antiracist by Ibram X. Kendi (John McWhorter, education Next)

Book-related and General Links: